# Nanomaterials for batteries

## Lithium-ion accumulator (LIA), Lithium-ion batteries (LIB)

Created new models of batteries – lithium-ion batteries with high electrical, power and design parameters on the basis of plasma technologies and FCMWNT “PLASMAS”.

### Polymer nanocomposites with FCMWNT

Thin, lightweight, flexible, electrically conductive film. Contents FCMWNT to 99% by weight. The electrical resistance of 1 Om/cm to n ⋅100 Om/cm. The thickness of 10 microns – n ⋅100 microns. Weight of 1-2 mg/cm². Length, width = centimeters, meters, etc…. – any.

Nanocomposite lightweight flexible thin polymeric conductive materials

Samples LIA of FCMWNT as the active electrode mass in cases of type CR2016

### Structure LIA CR2016 for test

The thickness of the anode active layer is less than 10 times. Battery electro capacity 10 times greater.

### Plasma modification.

The separator (Celgard). Activation. (Microporous polypropylene).

On the left- after plasma modification. On the right – initial separator. The capacity of the electrolyte up to 1,5-2 times.

### The theoretical model LIA of FCMWNT PLASMAS

#### LLC “PLASMAS” and The Institute of Problems of Mechanical Engineering RAS (St. Petersburg, Russia).

When you create a cardura at costco model, it made a number of assumptions. It was assumed that the anode surface is coated nanotubes (NTs) evenly, and so to a first approximation we can assume that the problem has a periodic nature. Given this assumption can select one for simulation NT with prescribed on the sides of periodic boundary conditions as shown on the slide.

NT will be modeled in the form of a thick-walled hollow cylinder (shown in black) Buy with an adjoining area, filled with electrolyte (shown in blue).

To the ends of the computational domain was applied potential difference, resulting in a current computational domain. On the side surface is defined by the vanishing of the derivative of the potential along the normal to the surface (the boundary conditions of periodicity of the problem).

The computational domain

### Basic equations

#### Potential equation

Potential equation written in cylindrical coordinates. (Z axis is the axis of NT).

#### Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions in dimensionless form are as follows: – to the ends of the computational domain unit potential difference is applied on the side surface of the area defined periodicity conditions.

#### Current

The amount of current at any point in the estimated region is determined by the formula (3). The coefficient of electrical conductivity σ of the medium is variable. Depending on the position of the point of the electrical conductivity σ is equal to or NT conductivity or electrolyte or increasing the electrical conductivity of the layer on the surface of HT carbonate. As the current passing through the surface of the NT here will accumulate carbonate.

#### Number of PCC

Accumulation carbonate is determined in accordance with the current at the surface of HT current scalar multiplication on the normal to the surface of HT at this point n in accordance with equation (4).

#### Conductivity carbonate

We assume that the process of accumulation has a limit (or by introducing to the scale of the accumulated matter) has a limit at which the magnitude of the current at a given point the surface drops to zero and the deposition process is terminated. Accordingly, we introduce the electrical conductivity of the surface layer is set by changing the values of the electric conductivity of the electrolyte (when Q = 0) to zero when Q = 1. The form of this function at this stage was passed in accordance with the linear formula (5).

#### Changes in the total current J and the accumulated charge (carbonate) Q in time t

Showing obtained by calculation schedules change over time the total current J, flowing through the settlement area and the amount of accumulated on the surface of HT carbonate Q. (all values are given in dimensionless form). The total current J changes over time more complicated way: before the current time 1700 decreases smoothly, then in a narrow time interval 1700-1740 decreases very sharply several times, and then starts to gradually decrease again before stopping the process time to about 4,700.

#### Streamlines when charging at successive times

The detailed field current contours at successive times. Isolines indicate Cheap the direction of current flow.

The amount of current flowing between any two adjacent contour the same (i.e. equal magnitude).

It can be seen that the main charging at any given time is performed not over the whole surface of HT, and mainly through a narrow portion of the surface sufficiently. With the accumulation of material on the surface, this surface portion moves from end to its base HT (first along the outer and then the inner surface).

#### Test samples LIA of FCMWNT

Limiting the charging voltage: 4,2 V / discharge: 3,0 VThe current charge / discharge current: 0,750 mALeah UMSNT (m = 0,003g.) 14.10.2007.

cycl | Process | t_start, min | t_end, min | dt, min | E, mA*h | mA*h/gr | K,% |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

112 | Charge | 42,33 | 298,33 | 256,00 | 3,985 | 1328,33 | |

Discharge | 309,42 | 564,14 | 254,72 | 3,984 | 1328,00 | 99.5 | |

113 | Charge | 574,58 | 827,08 | 252,50 | 3,972 | 1324,00 | |

Discharge | 838,25 | 1088,73 | 250,48 | 3,938 | 1312,67 | 99.2 |

#### Test samples LIA FUMSNT in n cases of type CR2016 in the extended range 5,2V – 2,5V

- Limiting the charging voltage: 5,2 V, discharge: 2,5 V
- The current charge / discharge current: 0,750 mA
- Leah UMSNT (m = 0,0033g.)
- LIA №139 / 1-HT. November 2007.
- M NT anode= 0,0033g
- Charge: 3,95 mA*h, Specific capacity = 3,95 / 0,0033 = 1196 мА*h/g
- Discharge: 3,71 mA*h, Specific capacity = 3,71/ 0,0033 = 1124 mA*h/g
- η= 0,9397

#### Test nanomaterials FCMWNT for Li-Ion accumulators

Change of сapacity of Li-Ion accumulator J = 1 mA. Q = 600 ►►►►2800 mAh / g active mass. ??? 6000 mAh / g active mass.???

#### Testing LIA FCMWNT PLASMAS in laboratory NATO Company “Sunlight” Greece (2006) and in the Company BYD, China (2006).

#### Results Testing LIA CMWNT in type CR2016 in the company BYD, China. (2006).

#### Lithium ion batteries with FCMWNT (10 AH 1.6-2,5 AH/cm3) and LIA with graphite (5 AH 0.7 AH/cm3)

LIA FCMWNT prototypes Save 90% of the initial capacitance Indicative evaluation for during storage 10 years.

### Indicative evaluation.

- The estimated cost of the new nanomaterial FCMWNT in mass production (5,000 kg / year ~ 5 Mega A-hours/year) will be 150 – 200 €/kg, it is at the cost of the best graphite powders currently used for the production of LIA.
- Electrical parameters LIA increased by 50% – 70% (and more).
- Manufacturing technology LIA practically unchanged.
- Perhaps the reduction in size and weight of the LIA in the same electrical parameters.
- Perhaps the increase several times in the electrical parameters LIA with the same dimensions.
- Perhaps You can make thin flexible lungs LIA, LIB high electrical parameters.

Technology and material patented. Patent Russia № RU 2282919. 30.09.2005. PCT / RU2006 / 000215 WO2007 / 037717 A1 05.04.2007 «The carbon material for lithium-ion battery and lithium-ion battery” Filippov AK Fedorov.M.A. Filippov R.A.

## Proposed

- Conducting research on the orders
- Conducting joint research works
- Development of various types, kinds modifications functionalize materials
- Development and production of laboratory, pilot, industrial equipment for plasma modification of materials on agreed parameters
- Organization of new production facilities for plasma modification of materials