Carbon Multi Wall Nano Tubes (CMWNT)
- Carbon nanotubes are multi-walled “PLASMAS” produced by arc discharge between graphite electrodes in the liquid hydrocarbon medium. The main difference between this method and the conventional techniques of multi-arc growth of carbon nanotubes (CMWNT) – the use of a liquid hydrocarbon phase, significantly reduces the temperature increase CMWNT, and the use of cheap technical graphite.
- The purpose of this method – the increase in the yield of nanotubes. A yield deposit 100-150g /hour and at the anode with a carbon conversion CMWNT to 100%.
- When producing CMWNT used as an anode technical graphite low natural content of iron impurity catalyst (0,01-0,2mas.%). No additional catalysts.
- Experimental laboratory setup obtain CMWNT 10 kVA voltage across the electrodes is maintained in the range of 20-30 V dc is a density of 70 150 A / cm2. The cross section of the graphite anode 4-6 cm².
- It turns cathode deposit containing 70-80mass % CMWNT, 20-30mass % Polyhedral carbon nanoparticles (nano-onions), Graphite, metal impurities (Fe)
The deposit contains 70-80 wt.% CMWNT, 20-30 wt.% Of polyhedral carbon nanoparticles (nano-onions) Graphene sheets, graphite and
<0.1- 0.2 wt.% Metal impurities (Fe).
Carbon Multi Wall Nano Tubes (CMWNT) PLASMAS
One end is closed hemispherical cap and the other end is closed conical cap with the appropriate number of layers in CMWNT.
Morphology CMWNT (Carbon Multi Wall Nano Tubes)
Distribution of the diameters and length
Averaged characteristics CMWNT
- average length – from 150 nm to 350 nm
- average outer diameter – from 6 nm to 10 nm
- the average internal diameter – from 1.8 nm to 3.5 nm
- average number of layers – from 7 to 11
- interlayer distance – from 0.34 nm to 0.36 nm
- geometric surface area – 100 sq. m/g to 300 sq. m/g
The main impurity of Nano-Onions.
2-15 layers of Graphene sheets
Ordered and disordered graphite
The structure of the Carbon Multi Walls Nano Tubes (CMWNT). (HREM)