Plasma Nanomaterials for Fuel Cells

Using FCMWNT “PLASMAS” for fuel cells

Together with the PTI Ioffe Institute. Ioffe RAS

Relevance of the work

Improving the efficiency of catalysis of electrochemical energy conversion devices would solve a number of important problems of alternative energy and bring a welcome moment of commercialization of scientific developments and output devices such as fuel cells for the mass consumer market. Works in this direction are in many leading scientific centers of the world, such as Horizon fuel cells (Singapore – China), Angstrom Power Inc (Canada), Toshiba (Japan), Samsung (South Korea), MTI MicroFuel Cells, Hitachi Maxell (Japan) DoCoMo – Aquafairy (Japan), Neah Power Systems (US), SEA (France), Fraunhofer Institut (Germany), including in the PTI Ioffe Institute. A.F.Joffe RAS (Russia).

Subject area

Direct energy conversion devices based on solid polymer fuel cells (TPTE). Nanostructured composites based on functionalized carbon nanotubes in electrocatalysis for low temperature TPTE. Portable electric power sources on the basis of TPTE.

Main idea

Increasing the energy conversion efficiency of electrochemical systems. Development of the technology of materials and study their properties in order to create electro catalysts TPTE with increased efficiency of catalysis.

Polymer nanocomposites with FCMWNT

Thin, lightweight, flexible, electrically conductive film. Contents CMWNT to 99% by weight. The electrical resistance of 1 Om/cm to n ⋅100 Om/cm. The thickness of 10 microns – n ⋅100 microns. Weight of 1-2 mg/cm².

Using FCMWNT. Catalysts for fuel cells

Material

FCMWNT Plasmas

MWCNT Taunit

Катализатор Specific gravity catalyst diffusion current, mA / cm² (true surface Pt) Specific gravity kinetic current, mA / cm² (true surface Pt)
100 mV 450 mV 550 mV
E-TEK 0.17 0.052 0.024
E-TEK + Plasmas 1:1 0.90 0.091 0.060
E-TEK +, Plasmas (HNO₃)1:1 1.8 0.22 0.060
E-TEK + Plasmas (HNO₃+H₂SO₄)1:1 0.96 0.057 0.024

The current density (mA / cm²) of the oxygen reduction catalysts on different composites at different potentials. Effect super catalyze!

Selected FCMWNT Plasmas the following criteria:

  • Effective technology
  • High dispersibility
  • Low cost
  • Production of St. Petersburg, Russia

Experimental work

Technology

1. Preparation of MWCNT

By electric discharge in liquid aromatic hydrocarbons

2. Plasma-chemical processing

The plasma discharge in a medium Ar + O2 + N2 in equal proportions at a residual pressure of 0.5 Torr, specific power of electric discharge of 0.05 W/cm3 and frequency of 40 MHz. The treatment was carried out for 450 sec

3. Functionalization

The method of functionalization Contents of surface compounds%
Pho 3.8
Thermal oxidation 0.42
HNO3 + H2SO4 5.4
HNO3 9.0

4. Preparation of catalyst ink

PPt / C + Nafion

5. Production of the OIE

Formation of the COP

Ready OIE

The electrical characteristics of the OIE

E-TEK

Composite E-TEK + FCMWNT (HNO₃)FCMWNT – 11%Pt / C – 69%Nafion – 20%

The sweep speed of 10 mV / s, temperature of 24 C, air-hydrogen

The sweep speed of 10 mV / s, temperature 80 ° C, the oxygen-hydrogen

Result

Composite with FCMWNT PLASMAS showed specific power 2.2 times higher than the commercial catalyst E-TEK, and the ICA Pt (Pt mass activity of the catalyst in FMSUNT PLASMAS) – 4 times higher!

Proposed

  • Conducting research on the orders
  • Conducting joint research works
  • Development of various types, kinds modifications functionalize materials
  • Development and production of laboratory, pilot, industrial equipment for plasma modification of materials on agreed parameters
  • Organization of new production facilities for plasma modification of materials