Modification of the materials
Non-equilibrium plasma of high-frequency glow discharge
- The main parameters of plasma – electron density and electron temperature.
- The parameters of the plasma depends on the current, voltage, power, frequency, voltage, gas composition, gas pressure in the discharge chamber, the geometrical parameters of the discharge chamber, sizes and types of electrodes.
- The high-frequency glow discharge is created in the chamber at a reduced pressure when applying RF voltage to an external or internal electrodes. Within the scope of the electrons of the avalanche. It turns self-sustaining plasma discharge in the gas.
- Plasma system consists of two subsystems – light particles – electrons and heavy particles – molecules, atoms, positive ions, and excited by different degrees of freedom of particles (radicals).
- The average electron energy ~ 3 eV (30 000 K), and the temperature of the heavy particles of ~ 300 – 500 K.
- It turns nonequilibrium nonisothermal plasma.
- In a non-equilibrium plasma, there reactant concentration of reactive intermediate compounds and reaction products.
- In such a plasma, there are non-equilibrium energy distribution function of the various components of a multicomponent plasma reactive and non-equilibrium population of rotational, vibrational, electronic levels.
Non-equilibrium plasma chemical processes underlie different ways modifications functionalize the surface properties of materials change the chemical activity, adhesion, porosity, wettability, and other plasticity.
Ionization and modifications in a non-isothermal oxidative nonequilibrium plasma. Oxygen.
As a result of inelastic collisions of electrons and oxygen molecules are produced electronically – excited states.
- O₂ + e → O₂ (¹Δg) + e
- O₂ + e → O₂ (b³Σu⁻) + e
- O₂ (b³Σu⁻) + e → O(³p) + O(¹D) produced atomic oxygen
The metastable states O₂ (¹Δg) и O₂ (¹Σu⁺) ⁺) are characterized by high chemical activity and long lifetime (seconds, minutes). The active oxygen is likely the formation of ozone. The plasma discharge of oxygen in the oxidizing environment the following processes
- O(³p) + O₂ + M → O₃ + M (gas phase molizatsiya)
- O₂(³Σu⁻) + O₂ → O + O₃ (collisional deactivation)
- O₂⁻ + O₂⁺ → O + O₃ (dissociative recombination)
- In the interaction with the surface of the material + (O(³p),O₂(¹Δg),O₃) → is modified, activation of the surface.
- The material acquires new unique properties.
Plasma-chemical modification of the activation.
Hygienic material (CELLULOSE + POLYMER) left – after plasma treatment After Plasma modification. Right – the raw material Initial materia
On the left – nonwoven cellulose after plasma modification. On the right – initial nonwoven cellulos
After the plasma treatment the properties of absorbing sanitary material, to absorb and retain water, biological and other fluids are increased several fold.
The separator (Celgard). Activation. (Microporous polypropylene).
On the left- separator Celgard after plasma modification.On the right – initial separator. The capacity of the electrolyte up to 1,5-2 times.
Reduced consumption of electrolytes. Increased longevity and reliability of the batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors different types.
Activation. Fibrous materials. Wool. Dyed wool.
The Golden Fleece. Original vs. Plasma modification. Left-normal wool after dyeing. Right – dyed wool after plasma treatment. Dyeing is carried out under the same conditions.
Dyeing is carried out under the same conditions. After plasma chemical modification of wool:
- Wool is best painted
- reducing the time, temperature, power consumption, no special chemical additives.
- improved sorption properties of the material, all the elements, metals, heavy metals.
- The absorption (sorption) Gold -Au (alluvial Au) from the solution increases 10² -10³ times.
Mg. Ca, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ga, Br, Rb, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd ,Er, Au, Pb,Th, U – Sorption of uranium and transuranic elements increases 10³ – 10⁵
“Golden Fleece” – It is not a fairy tale! It – plasma technology! Absorption (sorption) of gold Au (alluvial gold and scaly) of natural water and a solution of industrial water rises in 100 -1000 times. Plasma modification of fibrous materials increases the sorption of uranium and transuranic elements in 10³ – 10⁵ times. The technology for the efficient collection of heavy metals, uranium and transuranic elements from natural waters. The technology for the efficient treatment of industrial waste, radioactive and contaminated water.
Plasma treatment makes it possible to carry out a complete sterilization of various sanitary, medical, biological and other materials
The photo shows the plasma treatment of the standard test sample of bacteria “Bacillus stearothermophilus” production of North American Science Associates, Inc.
The test sample bacteria “Bacillus stearothermophilus” North American Science Associates, Inc.
Treatment of the test sample bacteria in the plasma. Gas – O₂ (oxygen).Power RF generator 400 Watts. The frequency 27 MHz.
Protocol control bacteria, spores after conventional standard chemical + heat sterilization and after the plasma sterilization treatment.
In the control sample after normal sterilization – have a number of colonies of bacteria, spores and their development in an acceptable amount of (1,1 x 10⁵), ⁵), after plasma sterilization number of bacteria on the sample = “0”. Bacteria, spores – not.
Plasma sterilization – a complete sterilization without the use of harmful chemicals with low energy costs.
Plasma-chemical modification in a medium of organic gases.
The plasma discharge of the gas methane occur following ionization and recombination processes.
- CH₄ + e → CH₃ + H + e
- CH₄ + e → CH₂ + H₂ + e
As a result, the ionization produced active radicals:
- CH₃ + e → CH₃⁺ + 2e
- CH₂ + e → CH₂⁺ + 2e
Under reduced pressure, the major recombination processes in a plasma discharge on the surface tested. As a result, ionization, recombination processes and kinetic energy is released at the surface and there are centers of growth on the surface of the material.
- E On the surface + CH₃⁺ → CH₃ + growth center
Is the formation of polymer films:
- Growth center + CH₃ → polymer. CnHm
- Growth center + CH₂ → polymer + growth center
Plasma modification of various materials
Paper. Leather. Cardboard. Fabric. Hydrophilizing – Waterproofing.
Plasma-chemical modification of ordinary writing paper.
Upper paper sample – the hydrophilic treatment in the plasma. It turns an analog filter paper – High wettability and absorbency. In the center – the usual – raw paper. Below is a sample of paper – after the hydrophobic treatment in the plasma. The paper is not wetted and absorbs. All paper samples are on a horizontal surface. Fluid – water, various solutions. Appearance of paper is not changed.
Packaging board. The trays of cardboard packaging poured voda.10 days – 20 days. Appearance paperboard does not change.
Plasma-chemical modification of the skin.
Left sample – a common skin. Moisten with water. Soak up the traces, blurred drops of water ink. Right sample – the skin after plasma treatment – Waterproofing. The skin is not wetted by water. Traces of water droplets of ink after drying droplets.
Plasma-chemical modification of ordinary writing paper.
Upper paper sample – the hydrophilic treatment in the plasma. It turns an analog filter paper – High wettability and absorbency. In the center – the usual – raw paper. Below is a sample of paper – after the hydrophobic treatment in the plasma. The paper is not wetted and does not absorb water. Water droplets roll off, escape from hydrophobic sample paper. All paper samples are on a horizontal surface. Tilt angle = “0 °». Fluid – water, various solutions. Appearance of paper is not changed.
The micrographs water droplets on the surface of newsprint.
Drop of water on non-treated paper.
Drop of water on plasma treated paper immediately after applying a drop (water-repellency).
Drop of water on plasma treated paper after 30 minutes after deposition of the drop. (Hydrophobicity)
The protection and preservation of archival, historical and cultural values.
As a result of the modification of the plasma on the subject produced thin (N x 10 nm), the volume-stitched, gas-tight, inert, resistant to acid, alkali and biologically active media, invisible, do not change the appearance of the object, UV-resistant coating . The coating can be removed from the surface completely or partially in the right place if necessary for the restoration of a rarity. The properties of the material object and its appearance does not change.
The plasma processing technology, cleaning, sterilization, hydrophobic – a unique technology for the protection and preservation of archival, historical and cultural values of paper, papyrus, bone, stone, ceramics, wood, metal, textiles, paintings, pictures and other materials.
Plasma modification of the metal gallium. Ga.
T₀ ~ 30 °C; T₁ ~ 15- 20 °C;
Gallium under normal conditions has a phase transition temperature “metal” – “liquid» T₀ ~ 30°C; Plasma modification of gallium significantly reduces the temperature of the phase transition to T₁ ~ 15- 20°C; Gallium new unique properties as a liquid after plasma modification stored for a long time (verification was conducted for 1 year = 365 days) in the open atmosphere.
Materials with new physic – mechanical, thermal properties (gallium and others) obtained by a unique plasma technology – good heat transfer fluids for MHD motors. Coolers (heat transfer medium) for cooling circuits of nuclear reactors.
Plasma-chemical modification of the metal.
Hydrophilizing. Aluminum (Al).
Usually aluminum. Water sliding angle of ~ 30 °.
Initial material. Limited angle ~ 30°
After plasma modification (hydrophobic) Aluminum angle sliding water ~ 10 °.
after plasma modification. Limited angle ~ 10° Hydrophobicity.
The technology of plasma modification of metal – technology for protection, preservation of metals from water, frost, corrosion.
In a glass with water on the left – untreated, regular Nano cellulose. In a glass with water on the right – the solution – Nano cellulose after plasma chemical modification (activation). High speed solubility. A stable homogeneous slurry solution is stored for a long time. Plasma: RF glow discharge.
The technology of plasma modification of nanopowders (Nano cellulose and others) – allows you to create a new class of fast-highly effective drugs, medications, gels targeted delivery.
Nano silica. Nano Diamonds.
Nano silica Ǿ~10-15nm
Plasma technology modifications nanopowders (Nano cellulose, Nano silica, Nano diamonds, nanotubes and other materials ) – a unique technology to create new solar cells, for the new electronics, fuel cells, for the new storage elements and electric power conversion for new material alloys.
Возможности плазменной модификации органических и неорганических материалов.
- Activation of the surface
- Passivation, surface inactivation
- Protection against acids, alkalis, UV radiation, biological fluids
- Waterproofing, Hydrophobization surfaces
- Hydrophilizing surfaces
- Changing the porous structure of the material, the nanomaterial in the ratios of micro-nano-meso pores
- “Sew down” the introduction of new atoms, molecules in the structure of the material
- Modification of organic and inorganic compounds
- “Sew down” modification of biological compounds modification of biological materials
- Modification of biological materials
- Conducting research on the orders
- Conducting joint research works
- Development of various types, kinds modifications functionalize materials
- Development and production of laboratory, pilot, industrial equipment for plasma modification of materials on agreed parameters
- Organization of new production facilities for plasma modification of materials